Atomic Facts & Figures

Phosphorus Facts

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Phosphorus
15P
Appearance
colourless, waxy white, yellow, scarlet, red, violet, black

waxy white (yellow cut), red (granules centre left, chunk centre right), and violet phosphorus
General properties
Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15
Pronunciation /ˈfɒsfərəs/ fos-fər-əs
Metallic category nonmetal
Group, period,block 15, 3, p
Standard atomic weight 30.973762(2)
Electron configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p3
2, 8, 5
Electron shells of phosphorus (2, 8, 5)
History
Discovery Hennig Brand (1669)
Recognized as an element by Antoine Lavoisier[1] (1777)
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (nearr.t.) (white) 1.823, (red) ≈ 2.2 – 2.34, (violet) 2.36, (black) 2.69 g·cm−3
Melting point (white) 44.2 °C, (black) 610 °C
Sublimation point (red) ≈ 416 – 590  °C, (violet) 620 °C
Boiling point (white) 280.5 °C
Heat of fusion (white) 0.66 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vapourisation (white) 12.4 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity (white)
23.824 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapour pressure (white)
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 279 307 342 388 453 549
Vapour pressure (red, bp. 431 °C)
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 455 489 529 576 635 704
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 5, 4, 3, 2[2], 1[3], −1, −2, −3
(mildly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity 2.19 (Pauling scale)
Ionisation energies
(more)
1st: 1011.8 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1907 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2914.1 kJ·mol−1
Covalent radius 107±3 pm
Van der Waals radius 180 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure triclinic
Phosphorus has a simple triclinic crystal structure
Magnetic ordering (white, red, violet, black)diamagnetic[4]
Thermal conductivity (white) 0.236, (black) 12.1 W·m−1·K−1
Bulk modulus (white) 5, (red) 11 GPa
CAS registry number 7723-14-0
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of phosphorus
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
31P 100% 31P is stable with 16 neutrons
32P syn 14.28 d β− 1.709 32S
33P syn 25.3 d β− 0.249 33S

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